Employment policies before and after the Islamic Revolution of Iran
Zahra Karimi and Khadijeh Pari
The present book examines the most important government policy tools for accelerating the growth of investment, production and employment. One of the major preconditions for growth of investment, production and employment is access to banking facilities. For this reason, the present book addresses the evolution of monetary and credit policies and its consequences in different periods. Foreign exchange and trading policies also play a key role in the competitiveness of domestic production, and consequently, the expansion of production capacities. Given the fact that oil revenues have a high contribution to the country's foreign exchange reserves, and the positive and negative shocks caused by oil revenue fluctuations, foreign exchange policies and its impact on non-oil imports and exports have been analyzed. The authors have discussed policies such as determination of minimum wages, developments in social insurance and educational systems, which have directly influenced the performance of the labor market in any given period. They have also introduced major macroeconomic policies, such as establishing a currency reserve fund and targeting subsidies, and large employment creation programs including support for cooperatives and emergency employment plans, for each particular period of time.
The book consists of 7 chapters. The first chapter is devoted to pre-revolutionary employment policies. Since the early 1340s, with increasing urbanization and the problem of unemployment in urban areas, special attention has been paid to the need for appropriate policies to create new employment opportunities. However this chapter examines the employment policies in the fourth and fifth development plans (1346-1356) and the implications of implementing these policies. The second chapter deals with employment policies in the era of revolution and war. During this period, when the country's economy was generally faced with stagnation and rising unemployment, the government applied special macroeconomic policies to create jobs for the jobseekers, which has affected the employment situation directly or indirectly. Chapter Three examines employment policies in the first development plan. The impact of applying economic adjustment policies on labor market performance is addressed in this chapter. Later, in chapter four, in an attempt to analyze employment policies in the second development plan, the authors, after outlining a picture of the inadequate conditions of the country's economy at that time, introduce thoes policies which have been implemented to increase investment, production and employment rate. The fifth chapter deals with employment policies in the third development plan. This chapter analyzes the role of the reserve fund for stabilizing the country's economy, self-employment loans, and the emergency employment plan and their implications. The fifth chapter is devoted to employment policies in the fourth development plan, and the era of rising oil revenues. This chapter examines the impact of targeting subsidies and foreign exchange and trading policies on the decline in production and employment, and the authors have shown why the positive effects of implementing the Mehr housing plan on employment have been neutralized by false currency and trade policies. Chapter 6 is about employment policies in the fifth development plan. This chapter analyzes the conditions underlying the economic downturn during this period and the government's policies to combat the spread of unemployment. In the last chapter, after reviewing the employment policies in the Sixth Development Plan (1396-1400), the authors summarize the set of employment policies implemented before and after the Islamic Revolution of Iran and its implications, and then offer some practical suggestions based on the experiences gained from implementing these policies.
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